Sound is a mechanic wave and it is any pressure variation that can be detected by the human ear.
Noise is unwanted sound. Noise caused by industry, infrastructure is a major source of dissatisfaction with the environment in residential areas.to control and monitor the influence of noise have been developed policies on noise control. If you use the same indicators and the same methods in different studies, you should develop standardized methods for noise mapping. GIS is very important part of noise mapping, it makes it possible to optimize and efficiency of noise effect studies.
Noise and sound is measured in decibels (is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a
physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level.
There are several types of noise, Continuous, intermittent and impulsive. The most common weighting measurement of noise is Aweighting(it cuts off the lower and the higher frequencies that average person cannot hear).There are several models of making noise maps: for train and traffic noise, speed, number of vehicles is usually used. For industrial noise maps, the most important thing is the description of noise sources: sound power levels, directivity, working periods. You can measure the noise using you mobile phone, you just need to download some specific software for it, but for more accuracy, you should better use a noise meter.
The aim of this topic is to show how to create 3D underwater models. For mapping underwater surfaces typically use sonar(sound navigation and ranging).there are 2 types of sonars. Passive sonar, which listen for the sound made by vessel, and active sonar, which emits pulses of sounds. To measure the distance to an object, you need to know what the speed of the sound and what time do reflections takes from an object back to a sonar. Usually for mapping use interpolation, because continuous surfaces cannot be completely measured. There are several interpolation methods: Deterministic, Geo-statistical, Global, Local, Exact and Approximate. For the first you should collect the data via sonar, so you will know the position of objects and its coordinates, then you need convert all the data you want to map to csv file, then toy need to transform csv file to point clouds, shapefile and polygons for interpolation target. Next step is to handle your data in IDW it is used for define shapes of surface and points, then all the results convert to DEM and then to TIN.
3.Findings in Communicating (Spatio-Temporal) Web maps
The topic was about creating a map User’s interface design. This topic helps to create a good and understandable web-map, because people accept the information in different ways. As vision is the important sense of all human senses, you should think about it. Making a map you should follow some rules, such as minimum intensity for the perception of colours,sounds, highlight important elements by the size of a text or by a color, if the color is weak, it might be not noticed. For example if Objects that are aligned to each other seem to be related, They should be aligned horizontally and vertically to create a clean look. Color has emotional and psychological impacts on humans, so if you want to show something is energetic you should take a red color, or if romantic so pink color etc. However, if you creating a map you should carefully thing about color. If it has no break point and include only one phenomenon, you can use unipolar map, if it has point break you should use bipolar map, two or more qualitative phenomenon’s use balance map. Modeling Spatio-Temporal Contents in ArcGIS: Add Layer(With Date/Time-Field), Set Properties(Time-enable Layer), Publish Layer(As Map Service), Visualize(Integrate Service in App).
4.Climate change and vulnerability to vector-based diseases
This topic was about how to make predictions on vulnerability of regions to vector-borne diseases and visualize it on a map. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are infectious diseases transmitted among hosts by intermediate species. The cause of the infection of new regions may be climate change, because it carries behind itself many changings such as temperature change, precipitation, Droughts and floods, as a result of climate change, both diseases might expand in regions and affect populations which have not been at risk in the past. We need to know what the first vulnerability is and where and why it started. And after analysis you have a map of movement.
5.GPS trajectories and automobile energy use
Trajectory of movement you can record using GPS. There are 2 movements: true movement which is continuous and recorded GPS trajectory which is discrete. When you start to collect the movements, they will be different from each other, so it’s interpolation errors. So you can track a lot of things: how the pedestrians moves in the city, how animals migrates, what is the traffic situations in the city, so you can collect a lot of useful information and then make a map. Using GPS and some kind of detectors you can understand which movement patterns in automobile traffic are energy efficient or energy inefficient. Speed, acceleration and slope influence fuel consumption. After the data is collected, you can compare with road map to handle errors and see why, where and when cars use much energy.
6.Forest succession mapping with Airborne LiDAR
Lidar- light detecting and ranging, it’s typically used in very accurate mapping of topology, measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light. In these topic I was shown how to collect the data using LIDAR, there are 3 types of lidar: ALS,TLS,SLS. The plane acts as GPS, so you know the position and the coordinates, the distance to an object is measured by timing the outgoing laser pulse and the corresponding return and you can track the angle of the laser to get XYZ coordinates. All the returns give you information about height of vegetation, its tops and the ground. From these data you can build maps.
7.Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)
Numerical weather prediction uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions. It can be short-time weather forecast or long-time climate prediction. Nowadays prediction moved from 36 to 72 hours, but it still can be not accurate, because of the “butterfly effect” it says that small changes in the initial condition of the atmosphere, could alter the course of weather completely. There are several NWP types: Regional weather prediction systems, Coupled systems, Ensemble systems. You can the collected data for providing general weather forecasts, providing weather forecast for different activities, research, Severe weather phenomena forecast, Understanding how the atmosphere works.
The presentation was about aerosols and how does it effect on people, climate and weather. The maximum extent of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere usually in August and in the Southern Hemisphere in February, but the minimum in N.H. in December and in the S.H. in June. The aerosols have relationship with density of population and urban areas, wide spread industrial areas and direct relationship to the temperature. The increasing surface temperature have a delayed effect on the increase in the area covered by aerosols and their thickness, because it takes some time to heat up and become dry. On the other side, rainfall has an immediate effect on reducing it.
The floods are very terrible things. And Himalayas is often suffer from floods, because the higher water content clouds move from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, and the clouds get combined over Central parts of India and move toward to Himalayas, and combined clouds contain very high water content and cause heavy raindalls. With the help of GIS the amount of precipitation and water discharge in various watersheds can be estimated. For modelling the risk of floods, heavy rainfalls and expected inundation areas can be used physiographic and hydrological analysis.
10. Transit times of baseflow in New Zealand rivers
Water quantity and quality responses of catchments to climate and land-use changes are difficult to understand and predict due to complexities of subsurface water flow paths and potentially large groundwater stores. It is difficult to relate the hydrologic responses of catchments to measurable catchment properties. Tritium is ideally suited to provide a measurable parameter of hydrologic response. Tritium, a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years after the water enters the groundwater system, and can therefore provide information on transit time of water through the groundwater system over the time range 0 to 200 years mean residence time. It gives us possibility to come back to the past or go a little to the future.